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   Saturnís rings, one of the solar systemís most mysterious phenomena, has puzzled astronomers for centuries. What could be the cause of planetary rings? Why is the presence of rings, only observed among the gas giants? What is the explanation for the gaps, grooves, and other anomalies such as spokes observed within the rings?

   Astronomers have put forth theories on how the formation of the ring system that surrounds Saturn is attributed to gravitational waves emanating from its moons. Although, this cannot be possible according to how waves emanating from different sources cancel or reinforce each other. A stable ring system formed from interacting gravity waves from moving sources would vary wildly. Gravitational peaks and troughs would constantly change appearance of the rings, due to random overlapping patterns caused by the changing locations of the moons in relation to the planet. Lets look at an alternate solution this present day theory.

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The cause of planetary rings is a result of two primary factors. The principal reason is due to the minimum mass a planetary object must achieve to produce sufficient gravitational and repulsion particle flow in relationship to its size. Secondary is the availability of small fragmented objects and micro meteors within its gravitational reach. In order to grasp the whole process, I will have to re-establish the basic principals of gravity and how it affects a random mass. Gravity, long rumored to be a wave or some cross with properties of both a wave and particle, is a charged polarized particle that travels from the void of space composed of dark matter to the center of a mass. Its flow is determined by the size of the mass, which dictates the magnitude of the attracting charge to the polarized gravity particle and the available space at the center of the mass, holding the gravity particles and the frequency of the refresh rate which controls field intensity.

   Weight, an experience encountered on the surface any large mass, is a force to the independent object applied in the direction of the flow of gravity particles towards the center of the primary mass. Once the gravity particles reach the center of mass, a phenomena unknown to most Earthís Scientists, the repulsion force, emanates from a particle that has a polarity opposite to gravity occurs. This effect takes place due to overcrowding in the core, as gravity particles continue to pour in. The attraction that brought the particles to a point of equilibrium or neutrality within the center of the mass now faces overcrowding from the continuing influx of particles that are following behind. Gravity particles, now under compression from new arrivals are pushed further into the center of the core, where they are overwhelmed by the polarity charge at the center that attracted them. The original equilibrium point is breached as pressure from incoming particles continue to build. The gravity particles, as they are forced closer to the center, lose their original charge and align with the opposite in polarity dominant charge. This results in a segregation of like particles stacking at specific weak points of the containment barrier, evenly dispersed randomly in a 360-degree spherical direction as the particle stream find equilibrium in the compressed subatomic particle field.  Once the incoming gravity particle has assimilated a like charge that is great enough to overcome the containment pressures of stacked particles on top, they are ejected or repulsed from the center of the mass in a high speed, concentrated stream. The force propelling the particle is in relation to the particle charge vs. the total charge and subatomic particle pressure at the center of the mass. Hence, the name and result is a repulsion particle.

   This particle exhibits some of the following new characteristics not yet seen by scientists. Any mass at close range encountered while exiting the primary mass is not effected, since the repulsion particles tend to rip through a mass due to speed of the particle ejection and the concentration of the stream without applying a force. It is when the repulsion particles saturate the immediate area surrounding a mass, that their effect takes place. A portion of the repulsion particles are pushed out due to rotational torque occupying along the same plane as the equator of Saturn. Alternating high density bursts between the equatorial plane from the added centrifugal force and the low density bursts about the sphere are released. Details of the interaction of the repulsion streams is covered in planetary orbital planes and motion. The central stream expands outwards against the low density, at a point of equilibrium the flow drifts and reverses back towards Saturn in this case. The zone of higher density central stream return flow is forced closer to the outgoing stream as function of distance to the planetary core as the low density gravity field increases. The gaps within the outgoing filled by the returning streams, thus a force directed toward the ecliptic from both sides.  Creating a very thin zone where a collection of small masses could orbit the planet in close proximity due to the intensity and concentration of stream bursts along the planetary ecliptic plane.

   Let's examine the dynamics of planetary ring formation. The mass of the gas planets contributes several factors, first a great number of repulsions streams emitted about the equatorial rotational plane. Second intensity of the streams related to the gravitation field frequency of its core. These emitted streams provide a secondary function by displacing incoming gravity particles flowing back to planetary mass within close proximity. It is the return flow repulsion particles filling most of the gap between the particle streams sweeping motion around the planet. What gravity subatomic particles that bleed inwards through the plane towards Saturn do affect the ring particulates. The result is an oscillation of the individual pieces of matter moving in and out from the alternating exposure gravity and the repulsion streams, but the total overall motion within the ring maintains an average static rotational pattern bound by inner and outer perimeters. The repulsion force tends to provide an order to the random size and varieties of dust, micro meteors, and small fragmented objects by segmenting like masses according to size and composition, which were captured within the gravitational reach of the host mass, as long as the other prerequisite of sufficient quantities of small objects to provide a ring system is met. Objects with a larger diameter than the thickness of the repulsion stream opposes the object to a constant inflow of gravitational particles leading assimilation by the planetary mass. 

   The repulsion force with its angular velocity not only negates gravity through displacement within the thin plane of material, but also provides the push that moves the contents of the rings. This is why the rings and the planet rotate at similar velocities. The planetary core is responsible for propelling both. The majority of the mass, which composes the ring systems, was acquired from remnant objects and dust ejected from the asteroid belt. It is delicate balance between the size of micro mass, its approach velocity to the planet, and its proximity to the asteroid belt. Jupiter, closer to the asteroid belt the primary source of matter for the rings, assimilated most of the matter due to its strong gravitational field and the associated velocity of the expanding dust cloud after collisions within the belt. The slim plane where gravity is neutralized cannot counter the incoming velocity of the objects when most objects approach Jupiter, as a near static drift is required. The debris cloud and expansion slows due the gravity of the Sun, as a consequence the material available for Saturn was unique. That is why Saturnís ring system is more defined than any other gas planets. Dispersion of the density of micro meteors is the primary factor affecting fainter ring formation of other outer planets, due to less material available for capture within their gravitational reach. For the inner planets acceleration towards the Sun once initiated could not be countered by the repulsion force, thus the ring particulates were captured by the planets  or more overall the Sun.

   Gaps and grooves in the planetary ring systems are attributed to the variations in the composition and the size of the matter that is contained within them. Gravity, though reduced to a negligible force, in the plane which contains the rings, is the counter force limiting ring expansion. The repulsion force, which pushes against the gravitational force, is responsible for segmenting varying size and compositions of matter into zones. This affects matter according to its composition and particulate mass, with like matter and size settling into similar orbits. Gaps are created when there is a wide variation in composition and size of matter floating in the ring system. There is an absence of material that would be at equilibrium in that zone as the segregated material separates according to the mass differential between the groups of particles, the greater the disparity the wider the gap between the rings of material. Grooves occur, when the variations in mass and material type are subtle.

   The appearance of spokes within the rings, unexplained by todayís astrophysics, is the result of a series of complex events. So lets examine the sequence of events that lead up to this anomaly. The occurrence of these ring disturbances first depends upon large numbers of repulsion subatomic emission points within the equatorial plane bisecting the center, but more important a temporary breakdown of the frequency of flow subatomic particle stream exiting the planetary core. It is the rapid pulse of multiple emissions out of a local zone along the equatorial rotational plane in succession instead of switching to the low density emission about the surface of the containment core inside the planet. The concentrated streams within the plane apply a substantially larger force at their point of penetration within the ring system temporarily affecting the general oscillation of the contain particles which compose the rings. A medium spike is limited producing a straight line anomaly. A larger temporary gap appears as a result of a multiple emissions, the naturally affected the gap widens and quickly back fills due to the pressure voids. This produces a flare anomaly as the ring particles curve out and away to fill the lower density field to the outside of the affected ring. This occurrence tends to gather larger amounts of ring material preceding the stream and creates an absence in its wake. What is observed by mankind and his instruments are the appearance of spokes.

   The rings of Saturn has provided many mysteries and with just many answers put forth by scientists, what has been presented only raises more questions due to inconsistencies. Knowledge in the areas of gravity and repulsion forces coupled with a new concept of  particle movement has now filled in the many blanks for the explanation of most ring systems present around planetary bodies an this level of our universe. The answers provided within this text will hopefully open up many new approaches, which will unlock the many mysteries of the Universe.

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