Continental Drift
Basics on Tectonic Plate Movement on Earth

 

Revised June 2010


   We will cover how and why the present formation of continents all originated from one land mass and the reason for the fault line, the Mid Atlantic Ridge, which is the primary point of separation for the Earth's crust. Also, why the continents have continued spread about the surface of the Earth. Finally, what are the primary driving factors controlling continental drift, is it a continuous slow expansion away from fault lines, related to the present theories or primarily from sudden lurches causing upheavals and gaps about the crust, due to Earth changes?
   The Earth of past was larger in mass and is a remnant of a massive cosmic collision, which occurred within the an orbit between Jupiter and Mars. An event researched by Sitchin and verified by Zetatalk. The field of debris left, is that which did not gain enough momentum and retained their relative static position within the zone between the 2 planets. Over time the debris field due to equalization of the various masses and the forces of gravity and repulsion expanded into the asteroid belt observed today. The iron oxide dust scattered by the impact, (molten iron and vaporized water coalescing in outer space) was primarily captured by Mars gravitational field as the direction of the collision was inward dictated by the Sun gravitational field. Thus the source of the iron oxide coating of the planet Mars, that is responsible for its red color in its wind driven surface sand.

   The impact created remnant crater displacing the underlying mantle and thrusting the crust upwards on the opposing side of the globe. The result compression transferring a force of expansion to the opposing side in order to equalize. The resultant was a series of primary cracks, the future fault lines responsible for the creation of the continents. Earth, formerly a water world lost a majority of its liquid surface water to space while the rest pooled in the crater forming the present Pacific Ocean, but now smaller than its initial size as the Atlantic, Artic and Indian Oceans did not exist.

   The land mass ancient Pangaea was created as result of a displacement pop in the surface crust riddled with major cracks and weak points to compensate from the deep depression within Earthís crust on the opposite side. Now lets consider how did the present continents separate and what forces were and still are in play concerning this process?

   Presently, current theories on plate tectonics and continental drift are based on what seems an obvious deduction, knowing the continents were combined as one at a point in Earth's history, so scientists assume there was a slow creep that separated the continents to their present locations about the globe. This theory also assumes pressure and magma injection at the sea floor along the Atlantic Rift would contribute new crust when cooled by the cold ocean depths, resulting  in a push separating the continents with their plate tectonic resistance and accumulated mass. Do not your theories that state magma and its pressure takes the path of least resistance? The point, a dome  or mountain chain would build upwards toward the surface of the ocean and then spread, instead of initiating a seafloor continental drift, the build up once hitting a peak elevation, (the support of mass against gravitational and contact force). This would then contribute to continental drift on a micro level as a secondary affect due to spread by gravitational equalization of the crust. This considers upward pressure from the rising magma, the total mass floating above the magma, and the downward pressure from the weight of the ocean and gravity, thus the path of least resistance is lateral in all directions. Thus the sea floor would thicken exponentially as one approaches the Mid Atlantic Rift, which is occurring. You need to consider, if the primary land mass split due solely to a slow drift, what created the depression of the Atlantic? An injection of new surface material would not only spread, but also fill.

   So what is the primary cause continental drift? First we have examine the dynamics behind planetary rotation and the movement of the plates in unison. Then consider what interrupted this equilibrium and at the same time initiated and continued the separation of the continents.   

There are 5 Primary Factors to Consider for Drift due to Planetary Rotation

What factors cause the core of the Earth to rotate

Rotational coefficient friction of semi-fluid mantle and its effect upon the crust

The direct relationship of applied force to the mass vs. thickness of the crust

The process of equalization is the goal for of any planet where the crust and its distribution of mass is unequal upon its surface

The problem of rotational torque on a tectonic plate


The Cause of Earth Rotation due to its Core

   Mankind assumes all planetary rotational torque or spin was inherited from the Big Bang and the coalescing, cooling and inevitably shrinkage of the radius of the planetary or cosmic mass. In the absence of friction due to what seems the vacuum of space all objects would continue to rotate. If this is true, then how do you explain that the Moon has stopped rotating. Although most of academia adhere their own theories that the Moon does rotates once in synchronization with its orbit, as if agreement among peers makes it correct. One of the many factors they have not considered is that the interstellar medium, which you consider a vacuum interacts with the planetary surface and slows rotation as a compromise against the resistance of the surface or in Earth's case its atmosphere. Would not all cosmic objects in the end cease to rotate due to the resistance? More important if space was a vacuum, Earth's atmosphere would be ripped away as if the weak force of gravity could not hold it.

   Rotation of fluid planetary and stellar cores are the driving force behind the continuous rotation of a cosmic object. As natural particle movement progresses in a circular fashion due to first a gravitational attraction to the most dominant mass to radius-distance combination within the local or interstellar region. But its path is changed by a gravitational attraction from the central core. Momentum tends to be conserved and then is attracted to another gravitational source from another direction. This constant relationship of overshoot and attraction to a new target starts and then reinforces circular motion in within the core of fluid planetary and stellar objects. It is this constant core rotation that applies drag through frictional contact of the stellar surface shell or crust of most terrestrial planets that is responsible for rotation. This why hydrogen based gas planets rotate at higher rates due to the low surface mass and high density core ratio compare to a stellar object, which has a lower ratio. Terrestrial planets vary, complicated by factors the core rotational velocity at the point of contact to the surface mass, with a smaller core radius slippage counts under mass of the planet's crust, and gravitational sources within the interstellar zone.

   So how do test this concept? Construct test globes with variable shell thicknesses, mass/cm3, inner core gel density and viscosity, and smooth to rough inner shell surfaces, spin them, then stop the globe for a uniformed time interval.  Upon the release, rotation will occur as core momentum drags the shell. If you want demonstrate reinforcing rotational motion, place the globe on a frictionless surface and locate magnets inside the globe dispersed within the fluid. Place a central magnetic where the field rotates in pulses to maintain a static position of the suspended magnetic particles within the fluid. The magnets will have the strength to be attracted, but not stop motion towards opposite polarity attraction points. When the internal structure of magnets cause and maintain a spin within the fluid, the shell of the globe is dragged along. This is how rotation works.

 

General Principles of  the Rotational Coefficient of Friction:

   Now that the process of rotation has been covered, lets examine the transfer of force from the rotational torque of the fluid core, which is a requirement and on its affect upon the crust of a cosmic object. These principles can be observed within our own solar system. Have you wondered why the gas giants have a higher speed of planetary rotation? There are three factors that control planetary rotational periods. The frictional coefficient between the underside of the surface crust and the translational force from the core driving semi fluid mantle. The ratio of the outer rotational driving surface area of the core, a radial point where slippage between what is considered the core and the outer shell produces a defining border in proportion to the contact area surface crust. This factor does favor the gas based larger planets. Finally the mass of the driving core versus the mass of the planetary shell or crust. Again the gas giants have a outer shell composed of lighter elements, thus it is these factors that contribute to the shorter rotational periods.

   Many will look at a fluid or semi-fluid core based on conflict against the inner surfaces of the planetary shell and ask how could rotational motion within the core have enough transferred force to translate into the planetary surface rotational torque or lack of that we observe today?

   For simplistic view, there is an uneven transfer of heat between the fluid core and the solid crust of surface of the terrestrial planetary object. In gas based planetary objects the temperature differential is reduced and there is a more efficient transfer of energy. It is this transfer process heat and the binding of mass that creates the rotational coefficient.
   Some are wondering, if there is a shorter rotational period as a determinate of mass, then how do you explain the slower rotational period of the Sun measured by weeks? Rotational force is not efficiently transferred due extreme heat molecular subatomic particle motion to the surface of the Sun, which is under less compression where the rotational coefficient of friction decreases as a function of a hyperbolic curve from a gravitationally dense core to the low density gaseous surface shell of the Sun. Thus, this what creates the slow rotational periods on most stars. If you were to consider a star where its mass compresses, yes there is a conservation of momentum, but then again the rotational frictional coefficient would increase and with it an exponential increase in the rotational surface period of the star. Science has many equations that explain conservation of force in regards to spin of a  mass in conjunction with a reduction in its radius, but no explanation of how cosmic objects initiates the spin process.


The Relationship of Applied Force to the Thickness and Mass of the Crust:

   When you as scientist or student try to approximate drift of continents on an active geo-thermal planet where rotation about its axis, due to a fluid core that is still intact and equalization of the primary land masses has yet to occur, what factors should you consider?
   Core rotation within a cosmic object is the prime force in driving the outer planetary shell or crust in a harden state for terrestrial planets. Thickness of the crust becomes a factor as force is applied due to rotational torque about the core that is transferred through the equivalent to a zone similar to that which is the Earthís mantle. This is a universal concept, where there is a direct relationship to the radius of the planet, the thickness of the crust and the frictional coefficient based upon the composition of matter driving mantle and the total internal surface in contact with the mantle versus the total surface area as a to if it was completely smooth and the temperature differential.
   Mass on terrestrial planets becomes a factor only that it produces an inequality the rotational force translating to the crust due to distribution, density and composition of the matter of the core, which drives rotation. Where thin layers of the crust would be pulled away from the build up of massive continental land areas as rotational torque transfers a greater force to the underside of lower mass crust. The breakage would eventually sink the leading areas of heavy continental crust creating a drop off on the leading edges or in extreme cases a trench where a temporary gap forms and support is lost. Another area pops up in response according to weak points in the crust on the opposite side of the gap. The breakaway crust with its added momentum a relationship of drive vs. mass of the crust, when meeting the opposing heavier land mass, first pushes it and rumples the land mass then subducts if lighter in mass underneath taking the path of least resistance producing mountains in waves. The process continues the pressure that pushes and pulls away equalizes only then does continental drift ceases. This process slowly occurs over billions of years unless acted upon by an outside force. In a somewhat unique case, here on Earth the combination of the magnetic iron forced up and harden in the Mid Atlantic Rift and the introduction of a magnetic planetary anomaly, the process of continental drift accelerates as a process. We will address this later or in another paper.


The Process of Equalization of Land Masses on Earth's Planetary Surface:

   Reviewing, we will start at a select point in time, where what is to become Earth was impacted by its future Moon, transforming what was primarily a water planet residing in a zone between Mars and Jupiter to now what is just filled with asteroid remnants of the event. This caused 3 primary features upon the crust. First, he impact basin, which the Pacific Ocean now fills. Second, as compressed magma was forced directly away from the impact zone, this applied a release of pressure to the crust as a single land mass was uplifted above new sea level on the opposite side of the globe. This was exaggerated due sea water flowing into the impact depression and loss of water dispersed into space from the impact. The impact did have an affect on the planetary crust since the planet maintained its form, but suffered scars, fault lines. That was the third fault, the primary, Mid Atlantic Rift.

   This was a primary crack created from the shockwaves traveling through the core and emitted from the planetary mass fracturing the crust almost 180 degrees away central point of impact. Presently the primary north-south fracture line has evolved into the Mid Atlantic Rift. On a secondary level, there were many minor cracks permeating the land mass and sea floor, like a broken egg shell from the impact pop, it is this feature that has morph into the future major and minor fault lines. During periods of planetary stress, the single continent eventually separated into several land masses and are presently drifting apart.
   These are a basic foundations of plate tectonic movements on Earth, but is the spread about the Mid Atlantic Rift, the only cause for the separation of land masses? In the high school physic's lab you have learned that if you release two metallic balls into a conic incline with a constant velocity that they would maintain a steady state of rotation within the conic section for period of time. The 2 objects ultimately over time are subject to variations in the air pressure left in the wake of the ball and to what builds in front they would settle at a pressure equalization point, which is approximately 180 degrees apart.

   It is this same basic principle that occurs on a planetary scale with continental land masses drifting in a complex relationship to the lighter ocean sea beds seeking equalization. The driving force responsible for the rotation of the Earth, its core and the transfer of applied force to the crust of the Earth is unequal, thus dependant upon many the sub factors of the Earth's crust, stretch and subduction of the lighter plates located in the ocean beds. With the Atlantic basin still expanding on the whole, it isnít until the Pacific basin compresses and subducts under the western shores of North and South America will the pressure driving the oceans sea beds equalize. Until then geothermal activity, earthquakes and compression will continue in the Pacific basin.
   What happens if the land mass with little cross sectional area of support compared to colliding plates? It crumbles then collapses to the equilibrium point the seabed.  During the this upheaval where the Atlantic expands and the Pacific subducts what should mankind expect? With the Pacific compressing there will be significant structural decay and adjustments at first along the plate boundaries of the weaker and smaller plates the Philippine, Cocos, Juan de Fuca  and Caribbean plates, where most to all structural support will eventually fail. All land masses within the area will experience severe escalating earthquakes and most surface land mass and islands will sink below the waves. The Australian plate will slide against the bottom of the Eurasian Plate along the Indo-China area destabilizing tectonic plate support for Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Skyscrapers will fall in the high profile cites as mankind's best engineering plans to reinforce the structural base fails.

   Focusing on Central America, the compromise of plate subduction from the west and the land mass floating on top is push away from the east and south due the stretch in the Atlantic Basin movement of the South American plate. With the North America plate sliding towards the South American plate, the result is that Central America tectonic support for its land mass collapses due to shear, compression occurs, then breakage and submerges under the ocean waves as debris. Will the other areas discussed in tectonic conflict experience the same result? Yes. When are some of these events most likely to occur in the year 2010, at the at or near of August or December when the magnetic grip on the Mid Atlantic Rift intensifies, as this is in the hands of God. If one was to hope for the least suffering may it happen in December where most will freeze to death in a short period of time instead of rotting in the heat in hope of rescue.
   The Earth will reach a point where process of continental drift matures and a point of equalization occurs when the Euro-Asian plate can no longer expand away from the Atlantic Rift by compressing the Pacific Basin due back pressures from the Americas. Plate tectonics then moves from separation about the Mid Atlantic Rift to general local plate movements rotating about various static points while the static point itself drifts slowly about the globe in a constant random pattern to equalize pressures caused by core rotation within the Earth.


   The current theories of continental drift excepted by scientists was not the primary cause separating the tectonic plates, but has expanded as a slow process of equalization of the continents between periods of upheaval. What has driven the Earth changes and the abrupt changes in the land masses only occurs during short periods of conflicts in geological history preserved as anomalies counter present day theory, currently suppressed in mid 2010, but the evidence still there in the fossils of the landscape.
   How can this concept explain the geographical features and land masses configured in the Northern Atlantic Ocean? First one has to realize that tectonic movement is a series of give and takes, all starting at the Mid Atlantic Rift. During certain periods of upheaval on Earth where the Mid Atlantic Rift locks due to the magnetic permeation of its surface edges, spews magma as new crust in relation to the net mass loss subducted to mountain building. In conjunction with rotational friction between the crust and the rotating core of the Earth, what changes occur?

   In time where the crust expands in conjunction with rotational movement the forward flow tectonic plates finds opposition and seeks an equilibrium taking the path of least resistance, where the smaller, lighter, less massive surface would be sub ducted by the obstructing plate. An example was along the eastern edge of the plate expanding from the rift as it was force under the Eurasian plate, thus giving birth and increasing the height to the Alps over the eons with the push back against the forward motion by popping of the surface land mass seen as the declining foothills. In some cases, the conflict tectonic plate obstruction is resolved by sliding pass each other like along the west coast of United States.

 

Rotational Torque


   Lets examine the concept of plate movement, which is related to rotational torque. So how does torque become factor of plate tectonics and movement? This process can be observed on the Eastern Coast of the United States.  As the crust of the Earth spins due to core rotational forces, there is an uneven application of force to the underside of the plate causing movement. As the latitude away from the equator increases, there is a proportional differential rotational torque towards the equator.

   Torque is a rotational stress applied to the crust where the force in the directional of rotation decreases as a function latitude away from the base, the equator. This causes a rotational force in the lower latitudes curl counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and the opposite in the Southern. Moving further to towards the north, this torque pulls down along continental edge weak points, tearing towards the equator in the direction of rotation. This is the concept behind the creation of most bays, sounds, islands, some capes and the recent earthquakes occurring Canada and the Northeast.

   The idea of rotation torque is new, so how does this affects the many lakes, ocean seaboard, and land formations now observed in the Northeastern part of the U.S. as a local example? With the heavier North America continent advancing slower than the lighter Atlantic seafloor there is stretching  then fracturing occurs along the eastern seaboard. With a rotational torque differential in the Northeast area of North America, there is a subtle pulling towards the southeast, places like Cape Cod opens up. In the near future Long Island Sound and the Hudson River will widen and the Palisades pop up as connective mass linking Manhattan tears and also rises slightly upwards, but then as stretching continues the coastline will be dragged down as the seabed falls, and this will be primary cause the New York earthquake. As stretching increases, sink holes, building collapses, hidden tears open up. Some events will show themselves as unexplained sudden drops in lake water levels and other areas new lakes or ponds. The question in the media will be for some established lakes, "where did all the water go"?

   The United States will experience severe quakes that will catch all by surprise as the states of Indiana, Kentucky and Tennessee incur the most damage. It is here rotational torque increases separation along the Ohio valley while core rotation rips the Mississippi river. The adjustments west to east and then the tug adjustments to the southeast will devastate cities like Indianapolis. TVA dams will crumble and thousands will drown down stream. The power grid down, roads and bridges gone rescue efforts will approach futile. Adjustments to the New Madrid Fault will not be explained with present day theories of plate tectonics.

 

Concluding
  
   
The driving force behind the rotation of the surface of the Earth is derived from a constant motion within the core seeking equilibrium, the rotational coefficient in this case overall is a constant over a defined geological period. It is this force, that is transferred to the mantle with the lost on energy converted to heat. The pockets created on the underside of the crust cement connectivity. Within a planetary sphere, the translation of rotational force provide by the mantle in simplistic terms is transferred to the crust as a function of the angle between the equator and the pole with the force decreasing as the angle of a reference point on the crust increases away from the equator ultimately its pole. Inequalities created by this process applies a torque to stress points about the Earthís crust. When a tear occurs either to the north or south of the fault line where expansion occurs.
   The Mid Atlantic Rift when created as an expansion crack to relieve pressure due to compression of the crust at the impact zone on the opposite side of the Earth. This initiated flow out of the rift once flowing, the expulsion of matter creates a internal pressure void, thus now the crust is sucked under at points where forward lateral passage is blocked by the path of least resistance was under the obstruction. This was the creation of most subduction zones.

Mankind's Answer: The Snowball Theory

 

   Lets look at the snowball theory. Some scientists have tried to explain that many varied land masses and their features, which are counter to the there present environment. Evidence near the tropics exhibits a past presence of glaciers and the frozen landscape has fossilized traces of lush tropical vegetation. They conclude, at one or more times, these continental land masses have drifted near the assumed static positional polar regions of Earth. So where can we improve on this concept?
   Mankind has recorded evidence that the magnetic poles on Earth drifts, and it this phenomena that should be closely examined. Consider that if the poles wander as a function of the Sunís magnetic field and Earth wobble, then maybe the location of the poles moves about the globe as opposed to the land masses due to an introduced force yet discovered or worse, admitted by science? Models have shown the continents primarily drift in an east-west pattern parallel to the Atlantic Rift. With some secondary forces expanding in a north-south direction. So what force would push continents in a north to south direction opposing the momentum of Earthís natural rotation and then return the same land mass back to the tropics?
   Should we consider what effects of a meteor strike would cause on Earth? Yes. The atmosphere of Earth if saturated in dust due to a meteor strike would never be uniform. Does our atmosphere now resemble a uniform density, no. So how or why would the Earth be subjected to a uniform cloud of dust blocking sunlight in all areas? There would zones of high and low pressure and variations in the density of particulates floating in the atmosphere determined by many factors. Where rotational Coriolis Effect, heat retention, wind velocities and proximity to the Earthís surface and gravity, would all be primary factors. The Sun would melt any accumulated frozen precipitation along the equatorial land masses due direct sun rays or low density of dust atmospheric saturation where the light of the Sun could filter through. Does a snow covered terrain not melt when in the direct rays of the Sun? Do you think its reflectivity would stop absorption of most heat or just inhibit where intensity of the rays and atmospheric filtering affect the overall outcome? It is time to review the current theories presented in halls of academia.
   How do we address the concept that the snowball process was reversed due to an increased proportion of Carbon Dioxide by a factor greater than 350 times todayís current concentrations?
   The problem is that those who proposed the theory never considered the carrying capacity of carbon dioxide as part of a frigid atmosphere on Earth. The extreme low temperatures would cause carbon dioxide, which is heavier in comparison to all other components of air to precipitate out of the atmosphere in a frozen state due conditions predicted by the snowball theory never achieving the concentration levels needed to reverse the snowball climate trend. Can you offer an explanation that would support a catastrophic increase in a greenhouse gas when the ambient temperature supports a solid molecular form of carbon dioxide and atmospheric density does not contribute to an unnatural evaporation?
   If so, a run away increase of this gas does not build up, but during the years precipitates out of the atmosphere as snow flakes of dry ice. We should consider another explanation due the many flaws this theory has when examined closely. Therefore we must conclude, it is the movement of the poles that changes the climate and the position of the landmasses relative to the equator, not a series of ice and warm ages and polar continental drift.

 

 


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