Mountain Building, Valley and Lake Formation
Basics in Geology due to Plate Tectonic Movement

   Mountain building and valley formation is a result of plate tectonic movement, where stretching and subduction of the crust on this planet Earth, but where does the current textbook version of mankind’s geology explain land formations or part from the new alternate views?
   The Earth’s crust and its various geological formations are created differently in 3 primary zones: plate expansion, compression and tears within plates or their border fault lines due to shearing or rotational torque from the Earth's core, which applies a force to the underside of land and seafloor.


Plate Expansion

   Tectonic plate expansion or stretching is the principal factor in facilitating the creation of valleys and the various resultant forms of water reservoirs from marshes, small ponds, lakes to the Great Lakes and on the seafloor, the deep trenches. The crust of the Earth with its variable thickness is stretched when certain dynamic fall in to place. As the same force is delivered by core rotational torque along a similar latitude the transfer of this force through frictional contact to the underside of the Earth's crust causes stress points as a determinate of mass per a specific area of contact along the underside. With the distribution mass uneven between the continents and the seafloor, the force applied to a lighter mass creates a greater acceleration, thus eventually detaches at random weak points or established crust fracture lines. As support features along the fault lines still connected break and crumble, now unable to support the weight or mass of plate and dependant upon separation gap, there is a corresponding drop in elevation along the break lines, the gap edges in relation to the surrounding area. The greater the opening breach or evacuation of sub strata below the surface, the greater the depth due to gravitational acceleration and the sharper the angle to vertical of the valley cliffs as they back fill quickly before equalizing.

   Once a portion of a plate separates or fractures, there is a key feature to consider. Does the breakage occur on one side or does it encompass both sides along the entire perimeter approximately 90 degrees of the direction of movement? Examining the singularity perimeter break, the weak side develops to one edge of the fault or break line, where the fractured plate instead of separating along 2 somewhat parallel lines, the process creates a landscape that has an abrupt increase of elevation or sheer cliff just off the break point.

   The resultant if both sides are involved in perimeter break, the creation of a valley floor or potential path for a river or stream evolves. When the elevation of the land rises again beyond the depression of free flow, the water pools and a lake forms. If we examine this process, lets provide a more detailed description of what occurs.

   As support on all sides are loss due to tectonic movement involving the stretching of a plate, the future valley floor or fractured plate drops due to a gravity and the evacuation of mass as the plate stretches below the drop point. When a plate is stretched, due a differential of force to points on the under side of the crust along with support structure thinning and pocketing, this exploits weak points between distinct lines of stress in the crust due to density and fracturing, as it falls, this causes a piston action of a downward thrust against the adjacent land mass within collapsing gap. In order for area under compression to equalize the applied force, it is transferred to the surround edges, which are locally forced upwards due to soft crust expansion that is released along the edges. Once the edges achieve an equalization and eventually solidification or stabilization takes place, the valley takes form. General specs are determined as a function of the mass of the harden plate/surface of the locally affected area in relation to the viscosity and temperature of the underlying magma or a fluid state of surface matter, and the final depth reached is due to gravitational equilibrium relative surrounding of the lift of the cliffs along the border areas.

   It is this concept that geologist can use to predict tectonic movements or land features of pliable surrounding land masses subject to expansion. The key is approximating the fracture points along the edges of the plates where stretch, the velocity of separation, thickness of the plate and the texture of the plate mass which can vary from harden metamorphic rock to fragile sandstone. This is a start to establish a new base for geological plate expansion. Where the land is harden, the valley floor falls into the area vacated as the land stretched.
   Now your contemplating what force would cause a plate to stretch? The core of the Earth in its fluid form internally rotates due to attractions from gravitational and magnetic sources within the local area of the Milky Way galaxy. Within this fluid mass of the Earth's core, pockets of iron-nickel or heavy elements are attracted. The straight line attraction is bent by core gravity, with momentum conserved it over shoots optimum points of attraction and slows from frictional contact until attracted again. This motion is reinforced over time causing circular spin about the axis and due the drag, these pockets transfer the conservation of momentum to the entire fluid mass related to the core of the Earth. Core rotation achieves a balanced rotational torque due to the frictional coefficient between its outer surface and the underlying edge of the lower crust. It is this core rotational torque and the resistance of a balance of the mass of the crust that maintains the present approximate 24 hour surface spin about Earth's axis as a process of equalization. The rotation period remaining approximately 24 hours of established flow of time determined by mankind's records and standards until factors outside of current theories change events.
   There is a secondary process that needs to be considered during the overall expansion of plates, a progression of events that have points of give and take. This course of action within the plate, forces a state of compression or expansion, oscillating between the extremes until equilibrium is achieved. The action translates into a variable force applied to surface crust or the seafloor. It crumples due to build up of force that is obstructed, then collapses or creates a decreasing reflective force occurring back and forth until the energy diffuses away from pressure below, creating elevated areas of land.

   The resultant of pressure points are dispersed about the surrounding plate, take 2 primary forms. The first, when the crust is squeezed the land reacts to relieve the pressure by creating bumps, thus forcing the land upwards into a series of rolling hills. Second, if the force pushes against a natural break line and separates, parallel to the primary line of separation the land falls. Cliffs form as magma quickly rushes in the fill the void created by the piston action upwards adds to the pressure, thus shear cliffs rising sharply above the adjacent landscape. Elevation is a direct result of plate compression, which provides the pop reinforced by a stable upward pressure from underlying layers. Where as the pliability of the land mass decreases, the sharp cliffs morph into slow rise. 
   Where lateral forces are pulling and stretching the plate across a local geographic area,  the process continues to the extreme and the supporting plate is stretched beyond support, the edges crumble and break, thus drops until support due to upward pressure from sub strata supports the overall mass of the descending plate and equalization or a valley base is established. If the land has dipped below the local average water table, the creation of streams, rivers, ponds and lakes take shape dependant upon flow about and around obstructions aided by gravity. In unique situations, where a large expanse of land is stretched in one direction and several parallel breaks occur, the geography of most rivers and major lakes initially lining up 90 degrees to the direction of the separation force. An example of this process can be seen in central New York State and surrounding areas with the creation of Finger Lakes, Lake Champlain and parallel rivers like the Genesee, Hudson and Connecticut in the northeast region of the United States.

   When there is a soft pull, this tends to creates a series of vents or channels, which permeate the surface as pressurize magma exploit weak spots that open. Once within a fissure pressure expands, the moving crust or magma away from a central point, over time equalizes in the form of a tube. The same process has been observed on an extreme level with volcanic tubes. These same vents when followed a sharp compression,  pops the heated land that was in the vents, where the compression force is directly responsible the elevation of the pillars, as seen in South East Asia.
   In areas were the force stretching the tectonic plate tends to be diffused or pulled from many directions, the substrata develops weak points as the land expands faster than back flows can fill, creating many sub surface pockets. When structural surface support is lost, a group or series of shaped depressions defined by localized forces stretching the land surface are left permeating the surface. Where mean depth of the depressions falls several feet below the local water table lakes and ponds emerge. The fracture point [reference: the central focus of an extreme force is applied to a localized plate along a weak point or line where the connective support structure or crust at this point either collapses or tears] is key in conjunction with the force of stretch, as the depression shape elongates along the line of force stretching away from the a central point or line of maximum stress decreasing intensity in proportion to the average force of separation about this fracture point as compression or equalization causes a natural end to the breach. This is why lakes are deepest in their centers instead of a somewhat uniform depth.


So how do some current theories explain the creation of these Great Lakes?

Most scientists back the idea that ice sheets of a glacial origin gouged out the Great Lakes. Where numbers of support seem to validate a particular theory, in turn this creates an agreeable atmosphere among peers, but does that validate the theory? Examining the overall creep of the ice sheet in the direction away from a static North Pole, how do you explain lakes created at its extremes? Superior to the west and Huron in the middle are stretched at a 90 degree angle to Michigan which aligns with the southerly expansion of glaciers. Secondly, as the landscape is pulverized any deviation of glacial flow to expand below the mean level of the surface would have an exponentially decreased related to depth of applied force in the direction of flow. This due to the forces shear of a solid fluid mass, as a function of distance below the mean low point of unobstructed flow will slide across the frictional surface translating significantly less force to carve and create a surface depression.

   So how can we consider that the Great Lakes where remnants of past glaciers, when direction of flow does not match their shape elongation and the depth can be not be supported by the applied force distributed by the glacier in relation to depth below its free flow except Erie, which is the shallowest of the Great Lakes? What could account for the 1300 ft depression below the mean elevation of the surrounding landscape of Lake Superior? Where are the large moraine fields with debris left from an excavation of the magnitude needed to create the Great Lakes? The contradictions, "Lake Superior has its origins in the North American Mid-Continent Rift of 1.1 to 1.2 billion years ago, which produced a huge plume of hot mantle where the present lake sits.  The crust tore apart, leaving an arc-shaped scar stretching form Kansas through Minnesota, then down to Michigan."


Yet the single super continent Pangea existed 250 million years ago.

None of these questions have been addressed until recently, where some of these same theories were discussed on the program Universe, a broadcast originally aired on the, "History Channel" during early 2010.


   It was explained that Erie, Huron and Michigan were carved out of an ancient bowl and the remaining 2 Great Lakes did not follow the excepted theory. Thus the adjustment, the deeper Ontario and Superior were created by an expanding rift then gouged out by the glaciers of previous ice ages. This recent modification is closer to the truth, but is not what has occurred to create the Great Lakes.

   Weak points and rifts within the area of North American plate where the lakes were created, initially formed the ancient river beds hidden by geological modification and accumulation of sediments over time as the crust ripped towards what presently is the southeast. The depressions in the landscape expanded, due to the rotational torque off of the eastern edge of North America, which pulls down and away from the continent towards the equator. So how is the new concept of rotational torque created on the North American plate?

   It is the differential of force of core rotation to the underside of the crust, which loses efficiency as the transfer driving force decreases as the position at a point on the surface of the globe moves away from the equator, measured on Earth as latitude. Even though core rotation drags the entire surface crust as one, it is variable force that drags the land mass on the leading edges that initiates tears. This is what created the wide expanse of the Hudson Bay in North America and to a lesser degree, the Saint Lawrence Seaway. As the surface stretched, vast areas sunk due to loss of connectivity creating depressions in the crust as the surrounding land popped up. Over time these geological formations expanded as the rip tore open and widen the Hudson Bay, Saint Lawrence River valley and the exit flows. For Erie, the Niagara River and falls, Ontario it is the Saint Lawrence and in the mature area of the earliest Great Lakes the ancient river expanded and ripped into Lake Huron. During the last ice age the glaciers that formed  only modified what was already there by smoothing and expanding some the features of the already present in the surface depressions. The was the case for all of the Great Lakes, when the ice melted, the depressions filled creating what is seen today.

   Currently, how does this theory correlate with the recent drops in water levels in the Great Lakes and surrounding land rise in height? The rift that created the Great Lakes again is active, and still separating at an increasing rate, thus the depth of the lakes increases and the water level drops to fill in the newly creates voids, unseen at the bottoms of the lakes. As connectivity is lost in some areas along the edges of the lakes pressure is released and the surrounding land pops up. Common sense prevails, as levels drop suddenly so does outflow, the water does not seep into the surrounding surface how could it without an exit flow? But if the plate stretched and a new fissure opened the void would be filled, thus the sudden drop in lake surface elevation.



The Appearance of Sink Holes


   The recent frequency increase in the creation of sinkholes in some cases are being attributed to under water erosion of the surface land, but does this explanation back what is observed at the scene of devastation?

    First, is there evidence of a underground streambed, and more important signs of water flow? If you consider scene one must look at that the shape of the depression that would be drawn out in that direction of flow of water. Where did all the dirt and rubble get redeposit? None of these questions are or will be answered presently.

   Presently tectonic plate movement are on the increase, various pockets of voids and compression are created as the areas about the surface equalize. The common irregular sink hole forms as a void created as forces within the sub strata  evacuate mass at a critical point, this action undermines support at the surface on Earth. The point, a pothole or sinkhole forms, but when this same event occurs in an area that was geologically active the sink hole takes on a  more uniform appearance, at the extreme a lake forms. Lets examine why a sink hole may take on a uniform perimeter.   

   As various points on Earth's heated surface once exposed to its thin atmosphere starts to cool after it was formed. There was strong venting of heat, as natural channels were needed to release the extreme pressures and temperature through what was once a pliable surface. On the intense end these channels once created not only discharge heat and pressure, but magma resulting in the formation of the past and present day volcanoes.

   More often the venting created what seem as seamless circular tube like channels that pocketed the landscape. The heat was dissipated into the surface layers allowing a fusion along the channel walls and the surrounding land mass, thus a new plug. If there was rise above the landscape due to a pressure bulge, erosion over time hid its presence.

    Lets consider the process as the Earth's crust formed. The heated gases now trapped, but lighter than the surrounding mass, rises through the column. Once the crust hardens and percolation adapts what is normal for the surface of the Earth. Thus, as large pockets of gas forms below the plugs creating various voids and pockets as the crust above hardens and the gas escapes by seepage through the soil. Presently with an increase in tectonic compression and expansion, the cohesive bonds holding the perimeter edges of the ancient plugs and the surrounding landscape breaks down and once support tendons are broken it falls back into the void. Thus mankind glimpses the process of equalization, where as pressure introduced receives a bounce back and the compromise is a vast smooth circular hole of unusual depth where none of their present textbook explanations of geology fits. 



Tectonic Plate Compression

   Compression of the tectonic plates on Earth is a process that forces the leading edges of the plates into subduction zones as a path of least resistance. When subduction is not a option the plate edge oppose each other creating a zone of compression at first to relieve pressure the land surface rumples with soft rises as intensity increases there is a pop upwards as hills are created. Where current theories part from what does happen is related to the Earth's core, which is driving tectonic movement instead of established idea of a slow continental creep that initiates from the Mid Atlantic Rift. The creep of plate expansion and subsequent compression and in some cases subduction along the leading edges could not build mountain ranges faster than the process of erosion by weathering.

   Valleys in some cases are created in a similar spectacular fashion in areas of subduction and mountain building as sectional portion of plates fractured lost connectivity along its edges and fall great distances. So lets examine what happened at Yosemite National Park and are the park‘s spectacular landmarks formed from passage of former glaciers?
   In rare cases during mountain building, plate movement after a geological upheaval event starts to subside. The subduction plate faces a constant resistant during its advance, and with mountain building not being a uniform process, but a series of breaks, lifts or thrusts to relieve pressure. It is at the end of one these Earth changes that the effects creating a spectacular valley becomes permanent. In the case of Yosemite, the plate being forced under the mountain range to the east, allowed a thrust upward to geographic area, thus raising the elevation within the general area as mass gathered beneath, built up and released energy and mass in the direction of least resistance upwards. With subsiding plate movement beneath Yosemite, due to surface of the Earth is no longer locked at the Mid Atlantic Rift during an upheaval, rotation returns reducing the rate of plate subduction and stretching. This is the primary reason for the activity of plate tectonic movement to subside.

   With decreasing compression moving from the west to east, the resultant is a pull on the local plate as a ramp up of frictional force from the core accelerates the rotational spin of the Earth's crust until equalization balances forward motion and resistance. Along weak spots or fracture lines within the surface crust core rotation stretches the fractured plate to where the backend or westward edge end loses connectivity to the primary plate structure by ripping at the seam. The plate then snaps on the forward end due to mass unsupported on the backside. The fractured plate falls, accelerating the pop of the surrounding land mass due to compression of magma and its related kinetic energy from the fall of the plate mass and the viscosity of the underlying magma due to heat and composition of the surrounding land masses. The result in the Yosemite area was shear cliffs that harden and solidified quickly. The valley floor then settles at an elevation that is a compromise of the mass of the valley plate and upward pressure from the downward piston force of the surrounding cliffs acting on the valley floor.

   It is only that the tectonic plate movements, which were in closing phase of movement and modification that has made this valley with its unique features possible. If tectonic plate subduction was constant the valley would fell slightly or in most cases, a back fill would have occurred due to active compression of the moving plates. The resultant collision to the gap would now back fill, then bounce back against the forward moving plate thrust and it is force that once absorbed would causes rumpling of the plate at the weak points thus creating hills cascading down sloping away from the pressure. This would have been just another phase in the continuing process of mountain building and the creation of its normal foot hills.

   So what part did the glacier movement have in sculpting the landscape? Contrary to what is written in the geology textbooks, glaciers, erosion or falling rock did not carve out this valley, but did play part in smoothing the cliff walls, by rounding the peaks, and the creation some shallow lakes with moraines. The Yosemite Valley when created had sharper land features and greater altitudes for the mountain tops. The glaciers and weathering has soften these features over time to what is seen today.


The Combination: The Creation of Niagara Falls

   Examining another unique area of the country, lets consider what forces and resultant actions of the general plates in the local area was responsible for the creation of Niagara Falls in the western New York State. We have been given an alternate view that the glaciers were not responsible for the creation of the elongated bowl shaped Great Lakes. Thus could not have carved the sheer drop offs and gorge of the Niagara River, which drops in elevation several hundred of feet between the lakes as a gorge formed in a tight geographical area counter to the surrounding area. Glacial movement would tend smooth out features as opposed to creating sharp points between elevations. Snow and ice falls as a blanket applying a somewhat even pressure as it compresses over time to the local landscape. Is there an alternate explanation, yes. If so what happen?

   Niagara Falls was created in its present form during the last major Earth upheaval due to a complex set of  encounters with a smaller plate obstruction, rotation torque and the pop release at the base of the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain range coupled with the plate expansion flow assaulting the North American East Coast emerging from the Mid Atlantic Rift on the east.

   Planetary rotational torque applied to the North American Continent ripped open Lakes Erie and Ontario along fracture points, the flow lines of what was the ancient Saint Lawrence River, but there separation was established by an uplift in the crust thus separating the 2 lakes and a termination for Lake Erie, the Niagara River. The fracturing process continued as New York and the New England states were pulled to the south east and what was a narrow river channel ripped apart as a narrow gorge expanding up towards Lake Erie as the Earth changes subsided. The shear drops were created as connective support in the narrow valley collapsed in sections as the gorge backed up the river until reaching its present position. The mounds of debris that fell to the established valley floor and was not carried away, now resides at the foot of the falls.

Rotational Torque


   In the final concept, tears due to torque within tectonic plates a model first introduced in Zeta Talk, is a new approach that will provide some answers to fundamental geological questions. So how does rips in the crust due to torque, pull the land masses away from the primary plate causing the creation of great rift valleys, vast lakes and access to the ocean or sea via large bays and gulfs? If so, can we examine plate tectonics where this process has occurred? Addition information related to this tectonic movement is available in the supplemental paper Continental Drift.
   Lets address how does a rip occurs on the surface due to rotational torque? You have been introduced to the concept that the rotation of the Earth's surface is driven by its internal core rotation, instead of inherited conservation of momentum as the planet cooled and its radius was reduced. This is the driving force propelling the magma within the mantle beneath our crust. The efficiency of this core rotational force as it translates to the crust, diminishes as a function of the increasing angle moving away from the Earth’s equator to its geographical pole. Secondary, there are variable factors between the mantle and the crust, such as drag due to underside crevasses, viscosity and  frictional coefficient between the driving core and the dependant surface shell, all of which dictates Earth‘s period of rotation. Where there is a fracture in the plate along its leading edge, an unequal force applied to the crust that decreases as one moves towards the pole. It is this action that creates a rotational torque that force surface areas to spin slowly clockwise towards the southeast in the northern hemisphere and counter clockwise in the southern hemisphere towards the equator. It is along the established weak points, that the breaks establish a direction of the rip either expanding from the north or south.
   In our 1st example, we shall examine what forces were at play during the creation of the Hudson Bay in Canada. With the differential in the force applied to the edge of the North American plate increasing as one moves north with the land masses in this present configuration. The initial rip occurred at weak fracture line in the tectonic plate along its northern end and opened up due the force ripping towards the southeast. After many adjustments the fractured plate now supports the seabed of the bay, look at similar contours of the west and east shores and how in some places could fit together above the lower bay area, which mimics Lake Michigan. The lower bay area was in the early process of ripping and expansion, thus taking on the look of one of the Great Lakes to its present south, which went through a similar process.

   So what force cause the differential along continental edges? With surface land mass held in place due to a periodic lock caused by the Mid Atlantic Rift attracted to a magnetic anomaly, while the Earth's core continues to rotate. Weak points on the edge of continental land masses, permeated by fault lines break. The efficiency force that drags the crust, thus Earth's rotation about its axis decrease as one approaches the poles. This creates a rotation torque or pull towards the equator in order to compensate as the stress within the Earth's surface crust tries to equalize. As the rip continued,  the bay widens into its present shape seen today.

   Moving to the southwestern edge of North America, as the fault lines side past each, another a break occurred  as the seabed subducted and what is now Baja California, was uplifted. Thus the formation of the mountain chain presently running the length of Baja. With a fracture line to the present east of the chain, there was a reduction in forward motion. As the subduction of the lighter material that force up the range left little translational force driving the plate to the east of the range This area to the east of the Baja chain now under goes stretch as the land ahead is pulled away from the point of subduction and the fracture line rips and support structures fails causing the land to sink and open a  gap. This eventually separated Baja from the Mexico as the support strata below the crust was evacuated in pockets causing what was land above sea level to fall and form present the sea floor of the Gulf of California. On the westward side of the rip and the downward piston action the sea bed plate falling sends a wall of magna in 2 directions. There is a forcing up the advancing plate bordering the depression of the gulf reinforcing mountain building along the current peninsula of Baja. The continuing compression raises the surrounding land and as the initial ricochet subsides on the westward side of Mexico and slopes off from an elevated interior land mass back towards the Gulf of California, which is continuing today. This is the resultant as frictional force from core rotation continues on the east side of the fault line where stretching has occurred.

   As subduction continues in a diffused state on the eastside of the rip along the fault line, compression of similar land mass coupled with a reduced flow of  lighter surface material related to the crust at first causes a rippling effect of the landscape takes form with a slight increased of elevation. There is a bounce back of force not enough to thrust up a mountain chain that obstructs its movement, but instead pops foothills on the west edge of Mexico. This eventually leads to the mountain chain running north-south along Mexico as subduction returns.
   In California, we can examine the process that creates one of its primary features of the vast fertile plain between its mountain ranges. So how do we address the formation of the large fertile valley plain between two mountain ranges in the central part of California, where the wide expanse at both ends of the valley plain cannot be explained by a ripping motion of plate tectonics?
   Starting, some parts of California at one time was part of the sea floor, lifted by impact that created the present day Pacific Ocean. The Ocean Plate forced out most of the heavier mass leaving a lighter, thinner crust to support the ocean floor. When forced against the western edge of the North American plate the seabed subducted. Compression occurred and the path of least resistance for the surface mass was upwards creating the plates supporting the Sierra Nevada range to rise above the landscape. With forward motion due to core rotation diverted to thrusts upward a stretch of the surface crust initiated breaking along natural fault lines. The valley spread over a vast expanse. Once a shallow sea, the eons of decomposing sea life littering the bottom now accounts for the general flat areas of fertile farm land now dry surface land in central California. So the original plate that spreads as the foundation of the valley was once a the sea floor.

   As plate is subducted, the lighter crust decends at the barrier of the mountain range along the western coast as the heaver mass is uplifted due to the subduction. The heavier layer floating on top expands westward and thickens. Eventually as light plate forms and expands, the overall pressure once forcing up the mountain range now shifts westward and lifts the newly created light plate from the build up of backflow of mass subducted. Pressure once built up as point tends to equalize and retracts away the source of greatest resistance the mountain range in proportion to the backflow. As the plate lifts flow returns to a foundation that has cooled pressure builds the mountain range again pops under great force. A vacuum ensues sucking the lighter plate forward breaking its backside support, but at the same time the central point of the plate also becomes a stress point. Thinned now becomes a low point initiating a random path in which river may flow if rain exceeds land absorption. The light plate drops again forcing up the mountain range on the forward end and causing a lateral line of rumbled crust forced upward on the rear plate edge of the lighter plate, valley floor rises and the flow is slowly subducted under the original mountain range. This tectonic split is what you see today the Cascade Mountains to the North and Sierra Nevada Mountains to the South along the Eastern side. The valley has the Sacramento Valley to the north and the San Joaquin Valley to the south. The rumpled area is known as the Coastal Mountains. As this shallow sea was originally thrust upward during tectonic movements along the west coast, but how do we address the below sea levels in Death Valley?

   One has to consider what happens on land also occurs under our deep oceans and shallow sea floors with all its crevasses and trenches. When thrust upwards as dry land as a part of the tectonic movement process the plate now exposed to air its deepest parts are still intact. Some geological parts of the  localized plate may still fall below the mean sea level. This is the case for Death Valley. This depression feature that creates the deepest point of dry land on the North American Continent only occurs where the water table is so low as to not hide it. This is why only the deepest points on Earth are in arid environments, like deserts, the alternative are the deepest points in lakes.


The Difference between an abrupt process of Mountain Building and an Earthquake


   As Earth changes progress there will be unexplained observations that do not fit the classic textbook definitions of land shifting resulting from an earthquake. The destruction unusually severe, although in some cases will be downplayed from to some degree dependent the motives of the few pushed as, "Official Sources", but this is not what will capture the public eye. Yes there will be the usual rubble, destroyed buildings, but something is amiss. Land will disappear and what is left above sea level will be riddled with sink holes. Where established subduction zones exist the will be new land formations jutting up or elevated out of the earth, where no change was there before the quake. Scientist baffled with their old theories, will not be able to explain a process that is suppose to take place over the eons, now responsible for changes on the surface of Earth within minutes. This is what you can expect.


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Some basic ideas in this paper were inspired from: